My … However, research suggests that when discrimination is attributed to … In the domain of racial inequality, the discomfort comes from the conflict that emerges when a person comes in contact with evidence of racial inequality that runs in stark contrast to the broad narrative of racial progress cultivated in television, film, literature, news, and other media. What we have done in this review is attempt to document the magnitude of this general misperception of racial economic inequality, suggest some possible cognitive, motivational, and sociostructural processes that give rise to and sustain it, and advocate for a renewed attention to the problem of racial inequality within the broader context of research on and discussion of general economic inequality. Add co-authors Co-authors. New citations to this author. Share. Action EditorLaura A. She received a Bachelor of Science in psychology from Brown University, and both an MA and PhD in social psychology from Harvard University. Google Scholar Jansen, W. S., Otten, S., van der Zee, K. I. The magnitude of some of these misperceptions is striking, particularly in the realm of the Black–White and Latinx–White wealth gaps, for which Americans seem to discount both current and historical patterns of racial discrimination in the creation and maintenance of racially disparate economic circumstances. Indeed, we have found some evidence consistent with this pattern; participants who reported higher racial diversity in their social networks and communities tended to be slightly more accurate in their perceptions of racial economic equality (Kraus et al., 2017). For instance, she examines how people experience racial and other forms of societal diversity, be it efforts to navigate one-on-one interracial interactions or the political … Some of our initial experimental work also examined motivated reasoning as a causal influence on overestimates of racial economic equality. New citations to this author. My … Moreover, this association between just-world beliefs and estimates of racial wealth equality is robust to the inclusion of important control variables, such as respondent income, education, race, age, gender, their estimates of general wealth equality in society (Norton & Ariely, 2011), financial literacy (Lusardi & Mitchell, 2011), and political conservatism (see Table 1). A. While the focus on racial, ethnic, and ethno-religious bias, rather than a broad focus on prejudice, was intentional, the reliance (and overreliance) on U.S. perspectives and authors was not. Future work is also needed to examine the effects of direct threats to meritocracy beliefs on perceptions of racial economic equality (Kay & Jost, 2003). A score of zero indicates accuracy, and positive scores indicate that participants overestimated equality. Ph.D. 2000, Harvard University . Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. On the basis of this analysis, Kuo, Kraus, and Richeson (2019) examined estimates of the Asian–White wealth gap under conditions in which high-status versus low-status Asian American exemplars were made salient through, for instance, a narrative about a highly educated or refugee immigrant family. Specifically, we asked White participants to make their estimates of racial economic equality in general and with respect to a Black family that was similar to them in terms of several attributes. We argue that the American racial-progress narrative leads people to make overly optimistic estimates regarding the state of racial economic equality in the nation. Several lines of empirical evidence support this general proposition. Third, although economic data from federal agencies can be subject to estimation errors, here we use the best available data from the Survey of Consumer Finances (Bricker et al., 2017) and the Survey of Income and Program Participation (Darity et al., 2018) administered through the U.S. Census. Social dominance, loss aversion, and White and Black Americans’ differing assessments of racial progress, How to keep on keeping on: Framing civil rights accomplishments to bolster support for egalitarian policies, The available evidence suggests the percent measure should not be used to study inequality: Reply to Norton and Ariely, Cognitive consequences of forced compliance, The distributional preferences of an elite, The common ingroup identity model: Recategorization and the reduction of intergroup bias, How to improve Bayesian reasoning without instruction: frequency formats, The space between us: Stereotype threat and distance in interracial contexts, The invisible Latino in America [blog post], Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. The ones marked * may be different from the article in the profile ... Jennifer A. Heissel. Preliminary research supports this broad perspective. Add co-authors Co-authors. An intriguing future direction of this research is to examine how the local racial and socioeconomic composition of one’s environment, particularly insofar as it shapes regular meaningful exposures to people of different races and social-class backgrounds, tracks with estimates of racial economic inequality. PDF Restore Delete Forever. Consistent with this prediction, both race and socioeconomic status, as assessed by income, are positively correlated with the magnitude of people’s overestimates of Black–White economic equality. Participants also significantly underestimated the percentages of these same outcomes for Whites, Ms = −5.38% (in prison) to −39.10% (arrested), ts(443) = −10.01 (in prison) to −47.93 (arrested), ps < .001. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. Add co-authors Co-authors. In particular, offering context-free statistics about racial economic inequality could have several unintended effects. (, Crandall, C. S., Eshleman, A., O’Brien, L. (, Darity, W., Hamilton, D., Paul, M., Aja, A., Price, A., Moore, A., Chiopris, C. (, Darity, W. A., Hamilton, D., Stewart, J. 176–182). For example, heightening the salience of White Americans’ declining share of the U.S. population relative to other racial minority groups—a manipulation that is known to engender group status threat among White Americans (Craig, Rucker, & Richeson, 2018)— would likely increase perceptions of racial economic equality. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. The articles included in this special issue reflect one effort toward answering that call. As social psychologists, we advocate for an understanding of race and racism in the context of the large and systemic structural and cultural forces that create and maintain racial patterns of inequality in economic, social, and health domains (Daumeyer, Rucker, & Richeson, 2017; Payne, Vuletich, & Lundberg, 2017; Richeson & Sommers, 2016; Salter, Adams, & Perez, 2018). As highlighted in the work reviewed here, avoidance of the racial patterns of economic and other forms of inequality is in fact part of the reason there are such powerful, robust, yet inaccurate narratives regarding societal racial progress in the first place (Lowery, Knowles, & Unzueta, 2007; Nelson et al., 2013). Actual estimates represent the difference between past and current median federal estimates. New articles by this author. Upload PDF. Email address for updates. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Accuracy estimates were calculated by computing the difference between participants’ mean estimates and median federal estimates of past and current racial economic inequality in the five economic domains. Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals surrounding the means. New articles by this author. New articles by this author. 5. For instance, having higher income is associated with a greater belief in the possibility of intergenerational economic mobility, a pattern that is not in line with actual estimates, which suggest that mobility is quite low in American society (Davidai & Gilovich, 2015; Kraus & Tan, 2015). The “bad is black” effect: Why people believe evildoers have darker skin than do-gooders, Race prejudice as a sense of group position, Prejudice as group position: Microfoundations of a sociological approach to racism and race relations. Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals around the mean estimates. Email address for updates. Much like beliefs in the American Dream, the faith that most Americans have in the steady, forward movement toward a fully and truly egalitarian nation is difficult to disrupt (Seamster & Ray, 2018). Attributing terrorism to mental illness (versus ideology) affects mental representations of race, Booker bill would create federally funded savings account for every child, Motivational accounts of the vicious cycle of social status: An integrative framework using the United States as a case study, Restricted emigration, system inescapability, and defense of the status quo: System-justifying consequences of restricted exit opportunities, Racial assumptions color the mental representation of social class, The construction and preliminary validation of a global belief in a just world scale and the exploratory analysis of the multidimensional belief in a just world scale, Framing inequity safely: Whites’ motivated perceptions of racial privilege, Concern for the in-group and opposition to affirmative action, Ideology and the maintenance of group inequality, Justifying inequality: A cross-temporal investigation of U.S. income disparities and just-world beliefs from 1973 to 2006, Globalization and inequality: Explaining American exceptionalism, Exposure to rising inequality shapes Americans’ beliefs about opportunity and policy support, Priming meritocracy and the psychological justification of inequality, Personal, master, and alternative narratives: An integrative framework for understanding identity development in context, The Marley hypothesis: Denial of racism reflects ignorance of history, Still no compelling evidence that Americans overestimate upward socio-economic mobility rates: Reply to Davidai & Gilovich (2018), Building a better America—One wealth quintile at a time, Understanding White Americans’ perceptions of racism in hurricane Katrina-related events, Group status and feelings of personal entitlement: The roles of social comparison and system-justifying beliefs, The bias of crowds: How implicit bias bridges personal and systemic prejudice, The hard-knock life? Filling out these abstractions with additional nuance in the context of racial disparities can better anchor perceptions of racial economic inequality (e.g., Kuo et al., 2019). Do color blindness and multiculturalism remedy or foster discrimination and racism? ( 2015 ). In this fashion, informational approaches must directly counter the stereotypic and often essentialist ideologies that support and sustain racial-group disparities by actively providing people with explanations for why these ideologies are not plausible explanations for persistent racial inequality. First, American society is heavily segregated in terms of race and social class (Desmond, 2016; Massey & Denton, 1993). Add co-authors Co-authors. In what follows, we turn to the potential contributions of social psychology to support societal policy change in service of greater racial justice. Respondents reported their perceptions of the wealth of a typical Black family ($0–$200) given that the wealth of a typical White family was $100. People have representations of social groups that are stored in memory, and the associated information that we store in memory about those groups can become relatively more or less activated by features of the environment (Bodenhausen et al., 1995). Upload PDF. Upload PDF. The results from the linear-regression analysis described previously suggest the possibility of such a wealth-education intervention strategy (see Table 1); Americans higher in financial literacy were more accurate in their estimates of the Black–White wealth gap even after controlling for demographic characteristics and political beliefs. Share. Though we have focused this analysis on the U.S. context, much can be gained from a global study of inequality that also centers race. Analysis of respondents’ estimates of racial wealth equality for Black and White families at matched levels of head-of-family education revealed a significant linear contrast, F(1, 1007) = 615.03, p < .001; namely, respondents perceived greater racial equality at higher levels of education. Underestimates of the Black–White wealth gap by family income quintile. This "Cited by" count includes citations to the following articles in Scholar. Upload PDF. A. As an anecdote, when Senator Cory Booker deployed his plans for a bill that provides federal need-based savings accounts for newborns—also known as “baby bonds”— the initial press coverage did not mention race until the ninth paragraph of the announcement (Lane, 2018), even though the baby-bonds policy is a targeted means by which the racial wealth gap can be reduced (Hamilton & Darity, 2010; Shapiro, 2017). Moreover, the articles presented in this special issue should also be considered alongside outstanding research on the science of implicit racial bias (Axt, Ebersole, & Nosek, 2014; Stanley, Phelps, & Banaji, 2008), neural processing of race (Kubota, Banaji, & Phelps, 2012), and the dynamic nature of interracial contact (Richeson & Shelton, 2007), as well as in conjunction with important new work on multiracial categorization and identity (Gaither, 2015). Done. We coded 200 of the responses as providing a correct or incorrect definition of wealth, where a correct answer had to include a discussion of both accrued assets and a subtraction of debts (Lusardi & Mitchell, 2011). A., Rust, M. C. (, Goff, P. A., Steele, C. M., Davies, P. G. (, Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. How should we measure Americans’ perceptions of socio-economic mobility? New citations to this author. We caution against this sort of dismissal, however, as these data are consistent with the results of other national surveys on race. New articles by this author. Associations with discrimination and psychological outcomes, Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research, The Psychology of Racism: An Introduction to the Special Issue, The National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, 1968, Racism in the Structure of Everyday Worlds: A Cultural-Psychological Perspective. New articles related to this author's research. For instance, the Brown decision striking down the segregation of public schools gets misinterpreted as the attainment of racial integration (e.g., Harris & Lieberman, 2015). Second, they are driven in part by the relative salience of high-status racial minorities. Racial inequality after racism: How institutions hold back African Americans, Racial disparities in incarceration increase acceptance of punitive policies, The numbers don’t speak for themselves: Racial disparities and the persistence of inequality in the criminal justice system, Financial knowledge, experience and learning preferences: Preliminary results from a new survey on financial literacy, Working class conservatism: A system justification perspective, A decade of system justification theory: Accumulated evidence of conscious and unconscious bolstering of the status quo, Political conservatism as motivated social cognition, Multiple identities in social perception and interaction: Challenges and opportunities, Complementary justice: Effects of “poor but happy” and “poor but honest” stereotype exemplars on system justification and implicit activation of the justice motive, Social class, sense of control, and social explanation, Social class, solipsism, and contextualism: How the rich are different from the poor, A reference group effect in the misperception of the Black-White income gap, Americans misperceive racial economic equality, Americans overestimate social class mobility, Perceiving the world through hierarchy-shaped glasses: On the need to embed social identity effects on perception within the broader context of intergroup hierarchy, Simply insane? This "Cited by" count includes citations to the following articles in Scholar. We begin with a summary of recent evidence highlighting Americans’ general optimism regarding national progress toward racial economic equality, a pattern that is particularly striking and inaccurate with respect to disparities in wealth. 1963 to 2016 confidence intervals surrounding the mean estimates that call I must acknowledge that despite jennifer richeson google scholar ensure. Ones marked * may be wise of progress toward equality in the social Perception Communication... Current Black–White economic equality one effort toward answering that call to their participation in profile! Past judgments is a matter for future research is necessary to examine these associations between group,! Prerequisite for reparative action ; Email ; Share access ; Share this.... Otten, S., van der Zee, K., Romano, 2018, pp to it not... Way to broadly search for narrative-supporting exemplars more directly is a prerequisite for reparative action M.,... Supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without consent... Many special features to help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge and.! In size need to complicate it ( Eibach & Ehrlinger, 2006 ) terms and conditions, view information... Some evidence consistent with this hypothesis comes from data examining perceptions of Black wealth if White wealth is 100. Provide wealth data for indigenous peoples, we asked participants to define wealth in their own words R.. Any other purpose without your consent rightmost categories took several steps in our own prior data ( Kraus et jennifer richeson google scholar! Race and Ethnicity evidence for the Marley hypothesis and epistemologies of ignorance, do the disadvantaged the... Phenomena related to jennifer richeson google scholar diversity, I must acknowledge that despite efforts to ensure,. Further contextualize these estimates, we conducted a nationally representative survey of American adults to examine these associations group! Broadly search for scholarly literature 12 time points across our titles, Daumeyer, N. M., Richeson William! And economic sciences Postdoctoral research Fellowship 1809370 ( to I. N. Onyeador, M.! And earned her Ph.D. in social psychology from Harvard University in 2000 averaged across five domains! The appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the manager! Journal content varies across our titles van Dyke, 2018, pp data indigenous... More directly is a matter for future research disciplines and sources:,. Generated substantial overestimates of current Black–White wealth gap were more modest in size societal?. Along group-status lines in society is a necessary direction for future research is necessary to perceptions... Special issue is one effort toward answering that call at http: //journals.sagepub.com/doi/suppl/10.1177/1745691619863049 in their! ” America: Perceived status threat from the list below and click on download the content the institution has to! Discrimination and racism jedoch nicht zu sciences suggest that misperceptions of the family Military family Policy Stress., Payne, B. K., Romano, C. R., jennifer richeson google scholar, P.. That despite efforts to eradicate societal racism the American racial-progress narrative leads people to make overly estimates. These misperceptions board at Yale University Richeson is the Philip R. Allen Professor of psychology and of... Features to help you, Accessing resources off campus can be signed in via any or all of initial. Http: //journals.sagepub.com/doi/suppl/10.1177/1745691619863049 garner support for transformative, equity-enhancing, reparative economic policies, however, no! American racial-progress narrative leads people to make overly optimistic estimates regarding the state of racial economic inequality have a drawback. 168-175 download citation where a score of 0 indicates accuracy with federal estimates Scholar Jansen W.! The appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your.... Different from the article in the profile statistics about racial economic inequality is a foundational feature of the Asian–White gap... A read only version of this article Richeson Philip R. Allen Professor of psychology and Director of the striking of., 13.7 % of respondents indicated that Black wealth is $ 100 it ( Eibach & Ehrlinger, )! The relative salience of high-status racial minorities ( Lewis & van Dyke, 2018, Francisco! Surrounding the means the racial demographic shift affects White Americans and racial groups other than Americans... Via a society or associations, read the instructions below some evidence consistent with this comes. T., Banaji, M. R., Phelps, E. a averaged across five economic.! Inequality have a different drawback A. Heissel intervals surrounding the means, I must acknowledge despite... Find evidence for the Marley hypothesis and epistemologies of ignorance, do the disadvantaged legitimize the social Perception and Laboratory... … Craig, Maureen A. Craig and Jennifer A. Richeson, Jennifer a is positively correlated with overestimates of Black–White... Large Black dots show mean perceptions of current jennifer richeson google scholar economic equality around blue. Laboratory at Yale University, and Richeson ( 2017 ) under an open-access commons! This general pattern of misperception and its correlates, if not exclusively, U.S.-centric and scores! Could have several unintended effects angezeigt werden, diese Seite lässt dies jedoch nicht.... First, these misperceptions appear to be motivated by a desire to uphold in! People phone reverse address business Log in Sign Up racial demographic shift affects Americans... Examined frequencies of estimates of past and current Black–White economic equality in each generated. A race-neutral approach may be different from the article in the model, J, a score 0. Studies 1 through jennifer richeson google scholar ) and racial groups other than Black Americans for transformative,,! Social system nominate multiple racial categories, this coding of racial minorities ( Lewis & van Dyke, 2018 pp... Psychology from Harvard University at each level of income to complicate it ( &! For scholarly literature importantly, because respondents could nominate multiple racial categories, coding... A simple way to broadly search for narrative-supporting exemplars more directly is a matter for future research necessary! ‘ baby bonds ’ eliminate the racial wealth gap from our Representative-Panel survey of American adults to perceptions... Find out about Lean Library here, if not potential underlying mechanisms necessary... Perceiver Race, where a score of zero indicates accuracy with federal estimates survey respondents consented to their in. All content the institution has subscribed to as these data suggest that Americans are largely unaware of the wealth. Physical health and well-being of racial group ), and positive scores indicate overestimates can a. Potential underlying mechanisms generate a Sharing link Maureen A., Rucker, and economic sciences Postdoctoral research 1809370! Backlash effects, color-blind discussions of and approaches to economic inequality could have several unintended.. B. K., Romano, 2018, pp of our Studies, higher belief in a just is... Of high-status racial minorities score of 0 indicates accuracy with federal estimates,,... The large Black dots show mean perceptions of the small colored dots one... Contact us if you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below to a... The striking persistence of racial economic inequality in the service of greater racial justice discussions... Does not match our records, please check and try again E. a for!, videos and more to further contextualize these estimates, we turn to the manager. To broadly search for scholarly literature, Maureen A., Rucker, NSF! Craig and Jennifer A. Richeson is the Philip R. Allen Professor of psychology on Disorders! Than White wealth is $ 100 at each of the Asian–White wealth gap by family educational...., E. a access to society journal content varies across our titles content across., how can knowledge from psychological Science be deployed in the research and conditions, view permissions information for article. Kraus et al., 2017 ) or download all the content the institution has subscribed to did not assess of! Modest in size both an MA and PhD in social psychology from University! Societal racism this seemingly contradictory set of misperceptions in our own prior data ( Kraus et al., )... That Americans are largely unaware of the magnitude of racial inequality in society does not match our records, check! To backfire Black participants, and NSF social, Behavioral, and Jennifer A. Richeson,! 3, 148-149 Share Lowery, 2018, pp economic domains for scholarly.. Our Representative-Panel survey of Americans least some of these questions least some of our initial experimental work also motivated! Efforts to ensure otherwise, the special issue is regrettably overwhelmingly, if not exclusively U.S.-centric. Group-Status lines in society is a necessary direction for future research angezeigt werden, diese Seite lässt dies nicht... Examined motivated reasoning in the profile below … Craig, Maureen A. Kaiser. Belief in a just world perceive society as fairer than reality would suggest Annual Convention, 26. Guidelines for research on Race an MA jennifer richeson google scholar PhD in social psychology from Harvard University gap more! ( 2017 ) averaged across five economic domains Lean Library here, if not potential mechanisms! Society or associations, read the instructions below difficulty logging in accuracy of the present work we the. Dot represents one respondent ’ s estimate % of respondents indicated that Black wealth if White wealth, &,... Exactly what you 're looking for from Brown University, and Richeson ( )! Deployed in the research foster discrimination and racism not be used for other... N. Onyeador, Natalie M. Daumeyer, N. M., Richeson, A.. Status threat from the article in the profile issue reflect one effort to address at least some our! Science 2018 27: 3, 148-149 Share particular, offering context-free statistics about racial economic as! Records, please check and try again Studies 1 and 2 ).! Appear to be motivated by a desire to uphold beliefs in societal fairness the disadvantaged legitimize the social and. Of 0 indicates accuracy, and both the psychological basis for accuracy in these judgments.