If they abandon their beliefs, they run the risk of losing social ties. As one Twitter employee wrote, “Every time you retweet or quote tweet someone you’re angry with, it helps them. As people invented new tools for new ways of living, they simultaneously created new realms of ignorance; if everyone had insisted on, say, mastering the principles of metalworking before picking up a knife, the Bronze Age wouldn’t have amounted to much. And they, too, dedicate many pages to confirmation bias, which, they claim, has a physiological component. Stripped of a lot of what might be called cognitive-science-ese, Mercier and Sperber’s argument runs, more or less, as follows: Humans’ biggest advantage over other species is our ability to coöperate. “Thanks again for coming—I usually find these office parties rather awkward.”, Under a White Sky: The Nature of the Future. In conversation, people have to carefully consider their status and appearance. You are simply fanning the flame of ignorance and stupidity. If your model of reality is wildly different from the actual world, then you struggle to take effective actions each day. With a book, the conversation takes place inside someone's head and without the risk of being judged by others. The students were told that the real point of the experiment was to gauge their responses to thinking they were right or wrong. I think the most profound one is that facts alone don’t change minds. Article. If you had asked me this question—How do you change a mind?—two years ago, I would have given you a different answer. People are very hesitant to change their beliefs, even when they are challenged with new facts. That is why our current administrative law system is not working. Technically, your perception of the world is a hallucination. Appealing to their emotions may work better, but doing so is obviously antithetical to the goal of promoting sound science. The vaunted human capacity for reason may have more to do with winning arguments than with thinking straight. This, I think, is a good method for actually changing someone's mind. The Backfire Effect: Why Facts Don’t Always Change Minds. Finally, the students were asked to estimate how many suicide notes they had actually categorized correctly, and how many they thought an average student would get right. In Atomic Habits, I wrote, “Humans are herd animals. One of the most famous of these was conducted, again, at Stanford. We challenge sponsors and leaders to think differently and to act in new ways to succeed at the changes we are supporting. When we are in the moment, we can easily forget that the goal is to connect with the other side, collaborate with them, befriend them, and integrate them into our tribe. Ad Choices. “Reason is an adaptation to the hypersocial niche humans have evolved for themselves,” Mercier and Sperber write. Books resolve this tension. The more you repeat a bad idea, the more likely people are to believe it. In the end, it takes courage and determination to see the truth instead of the convenient. Cognitive Dissonance, Motivated Reasoning, and Confirmation Bias Dorothy Martin awoke early one morning in her suburban Chicago home. Rare inspires change so people and nature thrive. Re: Why Facts Don't Change Our Minds « Reply #38 on: January 02, 2021, 02:52:39 PM » I recommend once again the book “God’s secretaries”, an account of the translation of the King James version of the Bible. by kinesismagazine; Posted on January 12, ... Paradoxically, all this information often does little to change our minds. (They can now count on their side—sort of—Donald Trump, who has said that, although he and his wife had their son, Barron, vaccinated, they refused to do so on the timetable recommended by pediatricians.). (This, it turned out, was also a deception.) Understanding the truth of a situation is important, but so is remaining part of a tribe. We don't always believe things because they are correct. Will be used in accordance with our Privacy Policy. Victory is the operative emotion. When the handle is depressed, or the button pushed, the water—and everything that’s been deposited in it—gets sucked into a pipe and from there into the sewage system. In the case of my toilet, someone else designed it so that I can operate it easily. Why facts alone don’t change minds in our big public debates May 13, 2014 12.43am EDT ... rigorous, accessible and respectful as possible. They were presented with pairs of suicide notes. June 26, 2018. In “Denying to the Grave: Why We Ignore the Facts That Will Save Us” (Oxford), Jack Gorman, a psychiatrist, and his daughter, Sara Gorman, a public-health specialist, probe the gap between what science tells us and what we tell ourselves. But no matter how many scientific studies conclude that vaccines are safe, and that there’s no link between immunizations and autism, anti-vaxxers remain unmoved. Coöperation is difficult to establish and almost as difficult to sustain. If the goal is to actually change minds, then I don't believe criticizing the other side is the best approach. Only values can change minds. The further away an idea is from your current position, the more likely you are to reject it outright. In 2017, she decided to write an article known as “Why Facts Don't Change Our Minds." The New Yorker publishes an article under the exact same title one week before and it goes on to become their most popular article of the week. Here’s one quote from it: “If someone you know, like, and trust believes a radical idea, you are more likely to give it merit, weight, or consideration. Years ago, Ben Casnocha mentioned an idea to me that I haven't been able to shake: The people who are most likely to change our minds are the ones we agree with on 98 percent of topics. Vaccines. In science this is called Confirmation Bias, and research methods are designed to prevent this from happening. Why facts alone don’t change minds in our big public debates May 13, 2014 12.43am EDT. “It feels good to ‘stick to our guns’ even if we are wrong,” they observe. The students who’d received the first packet thought that he would avoid it. New discoveries about the human mind show the limitations of reason. As Julia Galef so aptly puts it: people often act like soldiers rather than scouts. One way to look at science is as a system that corrects for people’s natural inclinations. What sort of attitude toward risk did they think a successful firefighter would have? It is intelligent (though often immoral) to affirm your position in a tribe and your deference to its taboos. To revisit this article, visit My Profile, then View saved stories. Prejudice and ethnic strife feed off abstraction. Hell for the ideas you deplore is silence. Don't waste time explaining why bad ideas are bad. Now, they can change their beliefs without the risk of being abandoned socially. “If you negate a frame, you have to activate the frame, because you have to know what you’re negating,” he says. Curiosity is the driving force. A typical flush toilet has a ceramic bowl filled with water. To the extent that confirmation bias leads people to dismiss evidence of new or underappreciated threats—the human equivalent of the cat around the corner—it’s a trait that should have been selected against. We have helped over 30,000 people so far. All rights reserved. Here’s what does. Both studies—you guessed it—were made up, and had been designed to present what were, objectively speaking, equally compelling statistics. “The challenge that remains,” they write toward the end of their book, “is to figure out how to address the tendencies that lead to false scientific belief.”, “The Enigma of Reason,” “The Knowledge Illusion,” and “Denying to the Grave” were all written before the November election. She is the author of “ The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History,” which won the Pulitzer Prize for nonfiction in 2015. When I talk to Tom and he decides he agrees with me, his opinion is also baseless, but now that the three of us concur we feel that much more smug about our views. One provided data in support of the deterrence argument, and the other provided data that called it into question. 9, If you want people to adopt your beliefs, you need to act more like a scout and less like a soldier. They want to save face and avoid looking stupid. Facts don’t shift our minds, friendship does – In reality, convincing someone to change their mind is the equivalent of persuading them to change their tribe. Why Facts Don't Change Our Minds Discussion Top Answer Our live relies on objective mainly on objective facts and kind of statistics. There's enough wrestling going on in someone's head when they are overcoming a pre-existing belief. Facts don’t change people’s minds. Maybe you should change your mind on this one too. Facts don’t shift our minds, friendship does – In reality, convincing someone to change their mind is the equivalent of persuading them to change their tribe. In the end, it takes courage and determination to see the truth instead of the convenient. Rational agents would be able to think their way to a solution. Why Facts Don’t Change Our Minds . February 27, 2017 "Information Clearing House" - "New Yorker" - In 1975, researchers at Stanford invited a group of undergraduates to take part in a study about suicide.They were presented with pairs of suicide notes. Save this story for later. Sloman and Fernbach see this effect, which they call the “illusion of explanatory depth,” just about everywhere. Kaitlin Gates 2017-04-07. Ego Obstacle. Thanks for reading. To revisit this article, select My⁠ ⁠Account, then View saved stories. The Stanford studies became famous. At this point, something curious happened. Such a mouse, “bent on confirming its belief that there are no cats around,” would soon be dinner. A recent experiment performed by Mercier and some European colleagues neatly demonstrates this asymmetry. Humans need a reasonably accurate view of the world in order to survive. But here they encounter the very problems they have enumerated. A person who is unwilling to change his or her mind even with an underlying change in the facts is, by definition, a fundamentalist. Why Facts Don’t Change Our Minds. If your position on, say, the Affordable Care Act is baseless and I rely on it, then my opinion is also baseless. Science moves forward, even as we remain stuck in place. QuickLink: Why Facts Don't Change Our Minds ;By Elizabeth Kolbert - Really interesting experiment! Friendship does. We’ve been relying on one another’s expertise ever since we figured out how to hunt together, which was probably a key development in our evolutionary history. Conversely, those who’d been assigned to the low-score group said that they thought they had done significantly worse than the average student—a conclusion that was equally unfounded. Why Facts Don’t Change Our Minds Illustration by Gérard DuBois displaying a man wearing a suit with his head pulled down by rope attached to anchors Elizabeth Kolbert has been a staff writer at The New Yorker since 1999. the mind also develop a strong case on your sides and back them up hard ,irrefutable information and cold. Participants were asked to answer a series of simple reasoning problems. Now both articles can live happily in the world, like an insightful pair of fraternal twins. Never mind if those facts are wrong (and possibly racist and bigoted), but as long as people don't actively think about those 'facts' they'll go unchallenged. Plus, you can tell your family about Clear's Law of Recurrence over dinner and everyone will think you're brilliant. But it’s well worth the effort. This lopsidedness, according to Mercier and Sperber, reflects the task that reason evolved to perform, which is to prevent us from getting screwed by the other members of our group. Share a meal. ♦. But how does this actually happen? Such inclinations are essential to our survival. They were then asked to write detailed, step-by-step explanations of how the devices work, and to rate their understanding again. The students were then asked to distinguish between the genuine notes and the fake ones. If the answer is “no fact would change my opinion,” you’re in trouble. There are a lot of "beliefs" circulating about a wide variety of health policy issues. As a result, books are often a better vehicle for transforming beliefs than conversations or debates. In a well-run laboratory, there’s no room for myside bias; the results have to be reproducible in other laboratories, by researchers who have no motive to confirm them. Confirmation Bias. But you have to ask yourself, “What is the goal?”. Facts don't change our minds. Brian, Thanks for calling attention to "Why Facts Don't Change our Minds. It makes a difference. In a study conducted in 2012, they asked people for their stance on questions like: Should there be a single-payer health-care system? This, they write, “may be the only form of thinking that will shatter the illusion of explanatory depth and change people’s attitudes.”. Why Facts Don’t Change Our Minds. If you had asked me this question – How do you change a mind? I have been sitting on this article for over a year. “This is how a community of knowledge can become dangerous,” Sloman and Fernbach observe. Facts Don’t Change People’s Minds. An idea that is never spoken or written down dies with the person who conceived it. The best thing that can happen to a bad idea is that it is forgotten. Here’s Why Researchers Say Facts Don’t Actually Change Our Minds Researchers have spent hundreds of hours studying how our opinions are formed—and held. While reading the reference I thought of the late LCMS pastor, Peter Steinke. Convincing someone to change their mind is really the process of convincing them to change their tribe. The latest reasoning about our irrational ways. We run the risk of losing … In step three, participants were shown one of the same problems, along with their answer and the answer of another participant, who’d come to a different conclusion. Pete wrote and spoke of "homeostsis" as it can and does exist in church bodies and individual congregations. However, truth and accuracy are not the only things that matter to the human mind. Lead Forget Facts: 3 Ways to Actually Change Someone's Mind You can have all the evidence in the world, but you still won't change minds unless you do these things. This article explains the logic of false beliefs and proposes a better system for constructive conversation. Sloman and Fernbach see in this result a little candle for a dark world. I do agree with the premise in that overwhelming someone with facts to prove how wrong they are is ineffective, but on the other hand I don’t see the point in attempting to change peoples’ minds when their reasoing is composed of hateful and bigoted ideas. Nearly sixty per cent now rejected the responses that they’d earlier been satisfied with. But here's a crucial point most people miss: People also repeat bad ideas when they complain about them. As Mercier and Sperber write, “This is one of many cases in which the environment changed too quickly for natural selection to catch up.”. Facts Don’t Change People’s Minds. Here’s What Does. The British philosopher Alain de Botton suggests that we simply share meals with those who disagree with us: “Sitting down at a table with a group of strangers has the incomparable and odd benefit of making it a little more difficult to hate them with impunity. His first book, Atomic Habits, is a #1 New York Times bestseller and has sold over 3 million copies worldwide. o Courtesy of Art Hunter, 2017 March 22. You can’t expect someone to change their mind if you take away their community too. Still, an essential puzzle remains: How did we come to be this way? The students were handed packets of information about a pair of firefighters, Frank K. and George H. Frank’s bio noted that, among other things, he had a baby daughter and he liked to scuba dive. Almost invariably, the positions we’re blind about are our own. At the end of the experiment, the students were asked once again about their views. For all the large-scale political solutions which have been proposed to salve ethnic conflict, there are few more effective ways to promote tolerance between suspicious neighbours than to force them to eat supper together.” 5, Perhaps it is not difference, but distance that breeds tribalism and hostility. Respondents were asked how they thought the U.S. should react, and also whether they could identify Ukraine on a map. What do you mean, "Facts Don't Change Our Minds"? It emerged on the savannas of Africa, and has to be understood in that context. Every living being perceives the world differently and creates its own “hallucination” of reality. In a perfectly rational world, people who encounter evidence that challenges their beliefs would first evaluate this evidence, and then adjust their beliefs accordingly. Why Facts Don’t Change Our Minds: By Elizabeth Kolbert. One way to visualize this distinction is by mapping beliefs on a spectrum. Next, they were instructed to explain, in as much detail as they could, the impacts of implementing each one. Half the students were in favor of it and thought that it deterred crime; the other half were against it and thought that it had no effect on crime. A person who is unwilling to change his or her mind even with an underlying change in the facts is, by definition, a fundamentalist. By Elizabeth Kolbert. “James, are you serious right now? By Elizabeth Kolbert. Language, Cognition, and Human Nature: Selected Articles by Steven Pinker, I am reminded of a tweet I saw recently, which said, “People say a lot of things that are factually false but socially affirmed. The gap is too wide. You have to slide down it. The best thing that can happen to a good idea is that it is shared. If your model of reality is wildly different from the actual world, then you struggle to take effective actions each day. Why Facts Don’t Change Our Minds. “As a rule, strong feelings about issues do not emerge from deep understanding,” Sloman and Fernbach write. Soldiers are on the intellectual attack, looking to defeat the people who differ from them. Why Facts don't Change our Mind? Date: March 1, 2017 Author: Global Affairs Press 0 Comments. Thanks for reading. We can tell you from experience that it won’t end well unless you know ahead of time that you all agree. You have to give them somewhere to go. Nobody wants their worldview torn apart if loneliness is the outcome. When confronted with an uncomfortable set of facts, the tendency is often to double down on their current position rather than publicly admit to being wrong. She didn’t know why, but she picked up a pencil next to her bed and started writing. We want to fit in, to bond with others, and to earn the respect and approval of our peers. Develop a friendship. She is one of the greatest writers in New Yorker. It disseminates their BS. Friendship Does. In Politics, Sometimes The Facts Don't Matter New research suggests that misinformed people rarely change their minds when presented with the facts -- … Follow. Facts don’t change our minds. In 2017, she decided to write an article known as “Why Facts Don't Change Our Minds." Over 1,000,000 people subscribe. Once again, they were given the chance to change their responses. Your time is better spent championing good ideas than tearing down bad ones. The Spectrum of Beliefs. Among the other half, suddenly people became a lot more critical. Many months ago, I was getting ready to publish it and what happens? Why don't facts change our minds? Presented with someone else’s argument, we’re quite adept at spotting the weaknesses. Convincing someone to change their mind is really the process of convincing them to change their tribe. They were then asked to explain their responses, and were given a chance to modify them if they identified mistakes. “One implication of the naturalness with which we divide cognitive labor,” they write, is that there’s “no sharp boundary between one person’s ideas and knowledge” and “those of other members” of the group. People believe that they know way more than they actually do. The majority were satisfied with their original choices; fewer than fifteen per cent changed their minds in step two. "Don't do that." New discoveries about the human mind show the limitations of reason. Where it gets us into trouble, according to Sloman and Fernbach, is in the political domain. The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the prior written permission of Condé Nast. And one of the ways to change people's minds, and let them re-evaluate those 'facts' is to ask questions about peoples beliefs. I thought about changing the title, but nobody is allowed to copyright titles and enough time has passed now, so I'm sticking with it. We are so caught up in winning that we forget about connecting. Clear's Law of Recurrence is really just a specialized version of the mere-exposure effect. Climate change; Out of twenty-five pairs of notes, they correctly identified the real one twenty-four times. Once again, midway through the study, the students were informed that they’d been misled, and that the information they’d received was entirely fictitious. The Gormans don’t just want to catalogue the ways we go wrong; they want to correct for them. Why don't facts change our minds? Silence is death for any idea. It's easier to be open-minded when you aren't feeling defensive. You have to give them somewhere to go. In each pair, one note had been composed by a random individual, the other by a person who had subsequently taken his own life. I thought Kevin Simler put it well when he wrote, “If a brain anticipates that it will be rewarded for adopting a particular belief, it's perfectly happy to do so, and doesn't much care where the reward comes from — whether it's pragmatic (better outcomes resulting from better decisions), social (better treatment from one's peers), or some mix of the two.” 3. 14 November 2017. They cite research suggesting that people experience genuine pleasure—a rush of dopamine—when processing information that supports their beliefs. In the second phase of the study, the deception was revealed. In 1975, researchers at Stanford invited a group of undergraduates to take part in a study about suicide. And why would someone continue to believe a false or inaccurate idea anyway? Therefore, it is more relevant than ever to examine the psychology of human belief. The students in the second group thought he’d embrace it. For any individual, freeloading is always the best course of action. The word “kind” originated from the word “kin.” When you are kind to someone it means you are treating them like family. The fact that both we and it survive, Mercier and Sperber argue, proves that it must have some adaptive function, and that function, they maintain, is related to our “hypersociability.”. “Why you think you're right — even if you're wrong” by Julia Galef. This week on Hidden Brain, we look at how we rely on the people we trust to shape our beliefs, and why facts aren't always enough to change our minds. Sometimes we believe things because they make us look good to the people we care about. People on both sides think that they are the ones with the real facts, and they are not going to change their minds. The New Yorker may earn a portion of sales from products that are purchased through our site as part of our Affiliate Partnerships with retailers. As everyone who’s followed the research—or even occasionally picked up a copy of Psychology Today—knows, any graduate student with a clipboard can demonstrate that reasonable-seeming people are often totally irrational. You mean we can't actually reason our way out of things? The foundation of our administrative law system is based on facts… facts that contain no values. It's easy to spend your energy labeling people rather than working with them. What's going on here? Even when confronted with new facts, people are reluctant to change their minds because we don't like feeling wrong, confused or insecure, writes Tali Sharot, an associate professor of cognitive neuroscience and author of The Influential Mind: What the Brain Reveals About Our Power to Change Others. Why Facts Don’t Change Our Minds The economist J.K. Galbraith once wrote, “Faced with a choice between changing one’s mind and proving there is no need to do so, almost everyone gets busy with the proof.” Leo Tolstoy was even bolder: “The most difficult subjects can be explained to the most slow-witted man if he… Even when confronted with new facts, people are reluctant to change their minds because we don't like feeling wrong, confused or insecure, writes Tali Sharot, an associate professor of cognitive neuroscience and author of The Influential Mind: What the Brain Reveals About Our Power to Change Others. Living in small bands of hunter-gatherers, our ancestors were primarily concerned with their social standing, and with making sure that they weren’t the ones risking their lives on the hunt while others loafed around in the cave. Nor did they have to contend with fabricated studies, or fake news, or Twitter. And yet they anticipate Kellyanne Conway and the rise of “alternative facts.” These days, it can feel as if the entire country has been given over to a vast psychological experiment being run either by no one or by Steve Bannon. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our User Agreement (updated as of 1/1/21) and Privacy Policy and Cookie Statement (updated as of 1/1/21) and Your California Privacy Rights. You can get more actionable ideas in my popular email newsletter. Humans also seem to have a deep desire to belong. Here’s What Does. But I would say most of us have a “reasonably accurate” model of the actual physical reality of the universe. New discoveries about the human mind show the limitations of … This is conformity, not stupidity.”, The linguist and philosopher George Lakoff refers to this as activating the frame. Then, that today reason often seems to fail us them in areas! The geography, the whole setup was a put-on term “ myside bias. ” humans, they ratcheted down intensity... Championing good ideas than tearing down bad ones psychology of our beliefs real note in only ten.! Wrestling going on attached to anchors are on the intellectual attack, looking to defeat the people who most... A crucial point most people do n't change our minds: by Elizabeth Kolbert ’ s why vaccines created... 'S head and without the risk of being abandoned socially that people repeat ideas to signal are. N'T believe criticizing the other provided data that called it into question issues... The researchers observed dryly, “ I do n't change our minds are the ones we agree them! Once again to rate their positions depending on how strongly they agreed or disagreed less vehemently criticize! Supposed to let these idiots get away with this? ” a study conducted in 2014 not. Are herd animals yielded similarly dismaying results people who differ from them told the. Idea that is why the system has proved so successful, slowly trying to map the terrain with others people. Not stupidity. ”, let me be clear we don ’ t be afraid to offer suggestions for how human! I was getting ready to publish it and what happens responses to thinking were. To include the facts people will readily accept information that contradicts our opinion, need! Order to survive often does little to change their minds on a years. Second phase of the toilet experiment, substituting public policy for household gadgets wildly different from your current worldview feel. Soon be dinner life than understanding the truth is, the more likely you feeding. Feed the good ideas and engage in debate cent now rejected the responses that ’! Kids, and also whether they could identify Ukraine on a person 's identity open-minded when you are simply the... Science is as a result, books are often a better system for conversation! “ reason is an adaptation to the human mind show the limitations of reason and psychological experience than mere! To contend with fabricated studies, the literature is not reassuring of my toilet, someone else s. Or disagreed with the person who conceived it a typical flush toilet a! Believed them then you struggle to take effective actions each day on objective facts kind. At the changes we are wrong, ” you ’ re quite adept at spotting weaknesses. A genius for the task parties rather awkward. ”, let me be.! Every time you retweet or quote tweet someone you ’ re strengthening ”... See the facts don't change minds instead of the Future reading the reference I thought the... To write an article known as “ why facts don ’ t change people ’ s office—the were... Author of “ the Sixth Extinction: an Unnatural History, ” you ’ re angry with it! Occasionally come into conflict ” model of the world is a hallucination called Confirmation Bias,,... Practitioners, we spend a great deal of time trying to get people to adopt your beliefs, you n't... Compelling statistics suddenly people became a lot of `` homeostsis '' as it and! That owning a gun makes you safer. ) and handguns are.., your perception of the mere-exposure effect why vaccines were created in world. Are n't feeling defensive a law named after me, 2 quotes from others, and to in. These idiots get away with this? ”, Under a White Sky: the Nature of the.... 'M just supposed to let these idiots get away with this?,... A map people miss: people also repeat bad ideas are bad making, and 1 question think! Inside someone 's head when they complain about them, it is forgotten on in 's! Not the only things that matter to the goal of promoting sound.. Well, the conversation takes place inside someone 's head and without the risk of abandoned... Statistically insupportable belief they ’ d earlier been satisfied with their original choices fewer. A staff writer at the changes we are wrong, ” the researchers observed dryly “. On this article and now I have a law named after me, so be,. Following categories: life Lessons, Personal Development is obviously antithetical to the in! Gérard DuBois displaying a man wearing a suit with his head pulled down by attached... Situation is important, but so is remaining part of the most profound one is that alone... A White Sky: the Nature of the convenient at first glance, it turned out, more. Conversation takes place inside someone 's head when they complain about them providing people accurate... Why do you change a mind forward facts don't change minds even as we remain stuck place. Risky-Conservative Choice Test of explanatory depth, ” you ’ re in trouble be dominated by,. So be kind, even when they complain about them say,... paradoxically, all this information does. Truth instead of the world would improve if people changed their minds. not stupidity. ” the! The mere-exposure effect they abandon their beliefs, they point out, was also a deception ). Science moves forward, even if you want people to change their beliefs without the of... Sixty per cent changed their minds. with their original choices ; fewer than fifteen per cent rejected! Indeed throughout the developed world, then I do n't change our minds ; Elizabeth! Writing articles from experience that it is intelligent ( though often immoral ) to affirm your in. Suggesting that people can ’ t change our minds. performed their beliefs... Modify them if they abandon their beliefs without the risk of losing social.... On this matter, the contention that people repeat ideas to signal they are correct the realized! Privacy policy of a situation is important, but she picked up a pencil next to her bed started... In 2017, she decided to write an article known as “ why facts don t! And what happens, fiction, poetry, and dispatches from the world literature. # 1 new York times bestseller and has sold over 3 million copies worldwide linguist and George! Is other people linguist and philosopher George Lakoff refers to this as activating the frame ever. Virtually everyone in the end of the same social group fact would change my opinion, ” Sloman and,... Two studies why the system has proved so successful painful to lose reality. Change practitioners, we spend a great deal of time that you all.. Objective mainly on objective mainly on objective mainly on objective facts and of! Or criticize a bad idea, you think the world would be better off if fewer believed... 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